The oil chain is the journey of hydrocarbons from the subsoil to the ground ; its existence requires the discovery of a deposit. After the exploration of the hydrocarbon fields, they will be exploited and then sent to consumers by different stages which are carried out and continued by specialists. – The oil and gas cycle is as above:
- petroleum geophysics: Is the research done by a petroleum geophysicist, geophysics is an investigative tool making it possible to provide information on the earth’s crust and the subsurface for a practical and often economic purpose, it calls upon the study of the variation of physical properties of soils.
- Petroleum geology: Is the study made by a petroleum geologist, geology is the prospecting of the arrangement of the strata of the earth’s crust as well as the composition and structure of the earth in order to detect the presence of petroleum or natural gas, its main task is to detect areas containing hydrocarbons.
- Drilling wells: Is an operation carried out by an oil well driller, who is a worker or technician specializing in land or underwater drilling. It conducts reconnaissance or exploitation drilling of underground water from gas or oil.
- The production of hydrocarbons: Is implemented by a producer of hydrocarbons, it completes, activates, intervenes on the wells drilled, and also it extracts the most hydrocarbons from the deposit and brings it back to the surface where it can be treated and exported, so its role is to produce the hydrocarbons under the best safety conditions and trying to extract as much as possible.
- The transport of hydrocarbons: Is the accomplishment made by a hydrocarbon transporter, it accomplishes the distribution of hydrocarbons by PIPELINES or TANKERS, it ensures the routing of the deposit to the factories and after the treatment towards the consumer.
- Refining: Is answered by a refiner, which makes it possible to separate oil or gas into different cuts, this is DISTILLATION, and to carry out the operation of cracking heavy hydrocarbons, and also it improves the products which are not yet ready to be consumed with additional treatments.
- Petrochemistry: Is the process completed by a petrochemist, he performs various technical tasks related to the manufacture and quality control of petroleum products, identifies and corrects minor faults in measuring devices, calibrates the instruments of control, participates in the drafting of reports.
- Industrial security: Is managed by the HSE manager, it guarantees the storage of hydrocarbons, the maintenance of the products entrusted, the assurance of the activities carried out, the monitoring of petroleum deposits, the strict control of discharges and follows an environmental system.
- Industrial electricity: Is the profession of an industrial electrician, who puts electrical equipment into service and responds urgently to a breakdown, he maintains and repairs machines, repairs locations, installs and connects electrical cabinets and provides repairs to the workshop.
- The mechanics of the sites: Is the function of a site mechanic, who takes care of the installation, the maintenance, the distribution of the site machine and the mechanical equipment, he checks the machinery meticulously, he allows safe operation, detects and resolves any malfunction.
- The mechanics of petrochemical units: It is the task of a mechanic of petrochemical units, he checks the safety procedures and equipment on the field, takes samples and performs tests for quality control, transmits and explains the instructions.
- Automation of the processes: Is one a specialty of the maintenance, the computer scientist controls, regulates, cleans or replaces all or part of the robotic devices or controlled by automata, reprogram industrial automatons by using computer languages .
- The petroleum economy: Is the responsibility of the petroleum economist, he models the contracts for possible acquisitions of petroleum gas fields to transmit them to group decision-maker, his objective is to provide indicators of economic value and profitability of a project.
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