The heat pump is a thermodynamic device which uses the energy present naturally. It provides dwellings with homogeneous and gentle heat, and also allows cooling in summer and even producing domestic hot water for the whole house. It is installed outside.
A heat pump consists of 4 main elements: a compressor, an exchanger to capture energy outside which functions as an evaporator, a second exchanger to restore it inside and which acts as a condenser and the regulator.
Now the question is how this modern practice works. Thanks to a refrigerant that easily absorbs heat; the pump depletes the calories present outside in the air, soil and groundwater. The latter are energies always available, free and constantly. This fluid has the particularity of evaporating at a low temperature under atmospheric pressure. It transits to the liquid state through an evaporator and changes to the gaseous state with an increase in temperature. Then it circulates in pipes until a compressor sucks the fluid in the form of gas. Under the effect of pressure, its temperature rises again. The hot gas is then propelled in a condenser in which it gives up part of its heat energy either by direct contact with the final heat emitter or through a secondary circuit whose fluid transmits heat to the emitter final. For example the case of the water network of a dwelling. After having transmitted its heat, the temperature of the fluid is lowered to be able to capture the outside heat in a new reversible system cycle. The heat pump also allows refresh the house. The device returns the energy captured to transmitters located in the heart of the home: radiators, underfloor heating and even by the wall units or consoles that emit warm or cooled air. This system also works with domestic hot water.
Different heat pump systems are depending on the energy source used and the reason why it is. Starting with the air/air heat pump which is geothermal energy is called aero thermal energy. It captures the calories contained in the air and transfers it via air distribution systems in the home. There is another geothermal energy called an air heater. This is the air/water PAC, the latter draws calories from the outside air in order to heat the water which will then be distributed through the heating circuit. On the other hand, when a water table is present, it is possible to capture the heat contained in the later, and subsequently transfer it to the hot water circuit of your heating system. This type of installation generally requires two boreholes for the catchment well and the water reinjection well, but some models require only one forage.
Finally the soil/water heat pump, This geothermal system uses horizontally buried sensors requiring one or more boreholes proving to wait up to 100m or Horizontal buried sensors between 80 and 140cm deep which will take up the calories present in the soil. The heat recovered goes then be transmitted by the (CAP) which takes the role of restoring it inside the dwelling.
In order to compare the performance of the devices with each other and to characterize the ability of the device to restore heat, we use the COF, THE PERFORMANCE COEFFICIENT which means the ratio between the useful energy (the heat delivered by the heat pump ) and the energy supplied (the energy to drive the compressor).
Performance coefficient = useful energy / energy supplied.
It depends on the type of air/air, water/water, heat pump, and the temperature conditions of the outside and inside environment.
The heat pump is the ideal solution for an efficient heating system.
While ensuring comfort, you save energy. Indeed for 1 kWh of electricity consumed to operate, a heat pump returns between 3 to 5 kWh of heat. At a time when traditional heating systems are far from being as efficient. They provide 1 kWh of heat for 1 kWh purchased. This also applies budget savings, it allows you to amortize your installation over 3 to 7 years. And what is interesting is that this modern method helps to preserve the planet.